Uzbekistan: high legal consciousness and legal culture-a guarantee of the development

Muhammadi Usmonov,

Professor and Doctor of Juridical science of  Public Safety university of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Legal education plays a key role in forming the legal consciousness and legal culture of the population. For this reason, in all his speeches, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan pays serious attention to the importance of legal culture and its improvement.

For this purpose, the decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated January 9, “On fundamental improvement of the system of raising legal awareness and legal culture in society” to form a system of consistently conveying the content and essence of socio-economic reforms, adopted legislation and state programs, to strengthen the vital idea in the minds of citizens that “establishing the spirit of respect for laws in society is the guarantee of building a democratic legal state!”, to the minds of the young generation to deeply inculcate the concepts of rights and duties, honesty and purity, as well as norms of etiquette, to teach them the important aspects of the Constitution from childhood.

According to this Decree, it was determined that raising legal awareness and legal culture in society should be systematically and organically organized according to the principle of “person – family – neighborhood – educational institution – organization – society”. In order to increase the legal awareness and culture of the population, according to the “Uzbekistan-2030” strategy, to increase the number of non-state general secondary education organizations to 1000, to increase the share of students studying in non-state general secondary education organizations by 3 times, increasing the share of qualified pedagogic personnel to 50%, the level of coverage of young people with higher education to at least 50% delivery, to increase the number of lawyers by at least 2000 people.

The new legal thinking and the high moral potential of our people, which was established due to independence in the formation of the legal consciousness and culture of the population, were expressed as an ideological foundation in our renewed Constitution. Our constitution, on the one hand, was created as a direct product of the legal system, legal ideology and culture, which is a high expression of social legal consciousness, and on the other hand, it is an important factor in forming, positively directing and improving the legal consciousness, new thinking and culture of the population. is serving as

In our updated Constitution, important attention is paid to raising the legal consciousness and culture of our citizens. For example, in its Article 50, everyone has the right to education, the state continuous education system, its various types and forms, state and non-state educational organizations to ensure the development, to develop state preschool education and upbringing creating conditions, guaranteeing free general secondary education and primary professional education, compulsory general secondary education, pre-school education and upbringing, general secondary education being under state control, the right of citizens to receive higher education at the expense of the state based on selection in state educational organizations in Article 51, and in Article 52, the work of a teacher in the Republic of Uzbekistan is aimed at developing society and the state, creating a healthy, mature generation. recognition as the basis of formation and upbringing, preservation and enrichment of the spiritual and cultural potential of the people was strengthened.

At present, it is felt necessary to overcome the legal illiteracy in our society, to educate respect for the law, to be intolerant of arbitrariness and corruption. Legal education of citizens is an important component of all work on eradicating arbitrariness and legal illiteracy. Legal education is not a simple summation of formal knowledge about law and legal issues, but a conscious assimilation of the main rules of the law, turning the acquired knowledge into personal confidence, strict adherence to the law. to follow, then to make its fulfillment an internal need and habit.

Fiction literature, mass media, television, radio, press play a big role in legal education. Cultivation of legal consciousness is a component of the cultural life of the entire society, the social function of the state. The main directions of raising legal consciousness are legal education, mass media, wall newspapers, lectures, roundtable discussions, meetings, oral campaign, thematic evenings, which are carried out in the course of educational and educational work. promotion of legal knowledge, enforcement of legal requirements.

Educational work raises the individual legal consciousness of a person to the understanding of the most general legal principles and requirements that meet the interests of the whole society and the state.

Free, educated and well-rounded professional personnel who know their rights, rely on their own strength and capabilities, approach the events happening around them with an independent and conscious attitude, and see their personal interests in harmony with the interests of the country and the people. the task of education is one of the most pressing issues in building a new Uzbekistan.

It is necessary for every specialist to be familiar with the legal documents related to his field and profession and to be able to protect them. Therefore, equipping professional staff with legal awareness, legal culture and legal knowledge is one of the main tasks of a country that is building a democratic legal state. Until each member of the society does not know and understand his right, his duty and responsibility, if he does not see it as his vital need, our goal will continue to be ineffective.

Legal culture is the qualitative implementation of law in the life of society. It is a unique barometer in the use of legal opportunities in solving the problems and issues of daily life, in meeting the needs of the people. Legal culture, as a component of the general culture of the society, requires the conscious management of the society, the realization of the programmatic tasks set before us, and the fact that people work together to form the foundations of civil society while fully understanding the fundamental nature of the social and political reforms being carried out in our country. provides

For this reason, the current state of the development of society requires the legal culture and legal literacy of all participants in legal relations to be increased in every way. Legal culture, as a set of legal knowledge, legal need and interpretive practical activity, serves to ensure the successful solution of the tasks facing the society and the state.

In order to develop the legal consciousness and culture of the population, further expansion of the scope of training sessions on legal knowledge in general education schools and academic lyceums, preparation of question-and-answer manuals on legal issues that are common in the daily life of the population, and free of charge to households distribution is important.

According to the statistics agency under the President of Uzbekistan, the number of general education institutions has increased by 660 in the last 5 years, and the number of general education institutions operating at the beginning of the 2023-2024 academic year was 10,750.

In order to increase the legal consciousness and culture of the population, door-to-door promotion of legal solutions to common issues in everyday life and the nature of newly adopted legal documents, as well as free distribution of flyers, booklets and other handouts aimed at conveying legal information to families, conducting regular legal advocacy activities among young people and parents about the age of marriage, terms of alimony payment, marriage between relatives and its legal consequences, various problematic issues among the population in the neighborhoods, in particular , providing legal information to the population in the form of booklets, flyers, leaflets and posters on migration, material assistance, land acquisition, housing, communal issues, benefits, alimony, employment, education, etc., crime and other offenses In order to prevent, sharply reduce civil disputes and to instill respect for the law in the population, especially in citizens with difficult upbringing, it is important to systematically organize open dialogues with the population in neighborhoods by the courts and expand the scope of holding mobile court sessions becomes important.

In addition, the revision and teaching of the special training courses “Study of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan” and “Study of human rights” in terms of systematic training in all types of education will be organized. to create a system of new-generation legal textbooks and training manuals, in which general education schools provide training manuals aimed at simple and demonstrative teaching of legal knowledge for elementary school students, education organizing and conducting republic-wide contests in the field of law among pupils and students of institutions, organizing the preparation of educational materials aimed at promoting in the minds of young people that corruption is a very negative evil for the development of society and the country, developing videos, Conducting legal olympiads in the field of general and secondary special and vocational education, providing enhanced legal education and training to minors with difficult upbringing, applying special programs related to religious extremism, terrorism, ” preparation of special videos aimed at forming strong immunity against “mass culture” and other foreign ideas, enrichment of information-resource centers and information-library funds with legal literature is of particular importance.

Currently, there are 2140 mass media in our country, or 626 compared to 2016. The fact that 65 percent of them are non-state media indicates that structural changes are being made consistently in the field. It should be noted that together with traditional publications, Internet publications are developing rapidly, their number has reached 745, and they are attracting more and more readers.

Mass media of our country are boldly entering the international information space. Broadcasts of the National Broadcasting Company of Uzbekistan and a number of private television studios are broadcast to more than 100 countries of the world. The National News Agency of Uzbekistan, “Dunyo” news agency distributes its news in 10 foreign languages.

Next, it should be acknowledged that the employees of the publishing and printing industry make a worthy contribution to the noble work of popularizing reading in our country. The fact that 132 million copies of art books and other literature have been published by the publishing houses of the republic in recent years undoubtedly plays an important role in raising the consciousness of our book-loving people, first of all, our youth.

Strengthening the role of mass media in ensuring public control in raising the legal consciousness and culture of the population, strengthening their connection with state bodies and institutions of civil society, training and retraining of pedagogues-teachers who provide education on legal topics and their qualifications increasing the scope of preparation of master’s and doctoral dissertations on improving legal culture, paying special attention to the complex research of family conflict and violence and their socio-legal consequences are among the urgent tasks.

In order to increase the effectiveness of work on raising the legal consciousness and culture of the population, to further improve their legal knowledge, to establish the Department of Law in all higher education institutions of our country, to establish the perfect teaching of such subjects as Law, Constitutional Law, and Human Rights in this department. , systematically organizing the series of programs and broadcasts on television and radio channels, opening the Faculty of Law in all pedagogical universities of our country in order to train pedagogues who will conduct training in the subjects of human rights, jurisprudence, and constitutional law in higher educational institutions, and it is appropriate to train legal-pedagogical personnel in them.

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